Monday, March 12, 2007

The Conley Report, Part VI: A Brief History of School Finance

Next in a continuing look at the Conley Report, Washington’s very own school adequacy funding study. The full report can be found here.

I can remember the names of two judges from my Washington State History class many years ago: Judge Boldt, who had the unpopular decisions regarding Indian fishing rights, and Judge Doran, the school guy.

Section 1.3 of the Conley Report is “The History of Washington School Finance,” a history that would be incomplete without Judge Doran. This is a dry section, so I’ve included some links that can give you more background if school finance happens to be your kink:

1974: The first school funding lawsuit, Northshore School District v. Kinnear. An important idea established here is that the school system should be, “one in which every child has free access to certain minimum and reasonably standardized educational and instructional facilities and opportunities.”

1975: The Miller Report finds that state spending hasn’t kept pace with inflation, class size reduction, and special education costs. Doesn’t that sound familiar?

1976: Seattle School District No. 1 vs. State, better known as the first Doran decision. This established the principle that local levy funds should only be used for enrichment programs, not basic education, which was one of the points made in the special education lawsuit. Doran also tackled the “paramount duty” clause of the state constitution, ruling that meant the state should have a system that, “embraces broad educational opportunities needed in the contemporary setting to equip our children for their role as citizens and as potential competitors in today’s market as well as in the marketplace of ideas.” Even then, the world was flattening.

1977: The Basic Education Act is passed by the legislature, along with the Levy Lid Act. Under the Levy Lid Act districts levy capacity was supposed to be no more than 10% of their general fund, but in 1989 (and several times since) the Legislature raised the limit. In 1980-1981 8.0% of total operating revenues came from levy funds; in 2004-2005, that had climbed to 15.99%.

1983: Doran II! The state cut $200 million from basic ed during the recession and were promptly smacked down by the judge, who ruled:
  • Special education is basic education
  • Transportation (for some) is basic education
  • ESL, vocational programs, and remedial programs could all fall under that basic education umbrella

If something was basic education, its budget could not be cut to solve revenue problems. You can see some of the wording here still popping up in the dialogues we have today.

1988: Doran III! Here the Judge looked specifically at the special education funding formula, ruling that funding based on average costs was unfair. This was the birth of the safety net and the 12.7% cap, both of which went through the legislature in 1995.

1991: Booth Gardner convenes the Governor’s Council on Education Reform and Funding. The EALRs and the WASL are born.

2000: I-728 is passed with an impressive 72% yes vote. We’re required to do a parent survey every year to see how they want us to spend the money, and every year we’ve done it it’s been overwhelming for class size reduction. I-732 also passes, guaranteeing annual cost-of-living increases for teachers, but it is suspended in 2003 because salary isn’t considered a part of basic education.

2006: Washington Learns.....or
do they?.

The remainder of section 1.3 looks at the current state of ed financing in Washington, along with an overview of past studies that contributed to the discussion. Section 1.4 discusses the methodology Conley used for the report, and section 1.5 is a review of adequacy funding studies from around the country. In section 2 Conley begins drawing recommendations out of the different models he ran; we’ll pick up the series with that piece tomorrow,


Anonymous christie said...

Please do not use the Northshore School Dist. as your only resource on special ed funding. We, the Wa State Special Ed Coalition (WSSEC) highly disagree with their "spin" and we have a great deal of factual info. on our own website at We are the org. who filed the last lawsuit, Wa State Special Ed Coalition v. State of Wa that was decided in 1987/88. You are welcome to refer to our website.

9:28 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

豆豆聊天室 aio交友愛情館 2008真情寫真 2009真情寫真 aa片免費看 捷克論壇 微風論壇 大眾論壇 plus論壇 080視訊聊天室 情色視訊交友90739 美女交友-成人聊天室 色情小說 做愛成人圖片區 豆豆色情聊天室 080豆豆聊天室 小辣妹影音交友網 台中情人聊天室 桃園星願聊天室 高雄網友聊天室 新中台灣聊天室 中部網友聊天室 嘉義之光聊天室 基隆海岸聊天室 中壢網友聊天室 南台灣聊天室 南部聊坊聊天室 台南不夜城聊天室 南部網友聊天室 屏東網友聊天室 台南網友聊天室 屏東聊坊聊天室 雲林網友聊天室 大學生BBS聊天室 網路學院聊天室 屏東夜語聊天室 孤男寡女聊天室 一網情深聊天室 心靈饗宴聊天室 流星花園聊天室 食色男女色情聊天室 真愛宣言交友聊天室 情人皇朝聊天室 上班族成人聊天室 上班族f1影音視訊聊天室 哈雷視訊聊天室 080影音視訊聊天室 38不夜城聊天室 援交聊天室080 080哈啦聊天室 台北已婚聊天室 已婚廣場聊天室 夢幻家族聊天室 摸摸扣扣同學會聊天室 520情色聊天室 QQ成人交友聊天室 免費視訊網愛聊天室 愛情公寓免費聊天室 拉子性愛聊天室 柔情網友聊天室 哈啦影音交友網 哈啦影音視訊聊天室 櫻井莉亞三點全露寫真集 123上班族聊天室 尋夢園上班族聊天室 成人聊天室上班族 080上班族聊天室 6k聊天室 粉紅豆豆聊天室 080豆豆聊天網 新豆豆聊天室 080聊天室 免費音樂試聽 流行音樂試聽 免費aa片試看A片 免費a長片線上看 色情貼影片 免費a長片 本土成人貼圖站 大台灣情色網 台灣男人幫論壇 A圖網 嘟嘟成人電影網 火辣春夢貼圖網 情色貼圖俱樂部 台灣成人電影 絲襪美腿樂園 18美女貼圖區 柔情聊天網 707網愛聊天室聯盟 台北69色情貼圖區 38女孩情色網 台灣映像館 波波成人情色網站 美女成人貼圖區 無碼貼圖力量 色妹妹性愛貼圖區 日本女優貼圖網 日本美少女貼圖區 亞洲風暴情色貼圖網 哈啦聊天室 美少女自拍貼圖 辣妹成人情色網 台北女孩情色網 辣手貼圖情色網 AV無碼女優影片 男女情色寫真貼圖 a片天使俱樂部 萍水相逢遊戲區 平水相逢遊戲區 免費視訊交友90739 免費視訊聊天 辣妹視訊 - 影音聊天網 080視訊聊天室 日本美女肛交 美女工廠貼圖區 百分百貼圖區 亞洲成人電影情色網 台灣本土自拍貼圖網 麻辣貼圖情色網 好色客成人圖片貼圖區 711成人AV貼圖區 台灣美女貼圖區 筱萱成人論壇 咪咪情色貼圖區 momokoko同學會視訊 kk272視訊 情色文學小站 成人情色貼圖區 嘟嘟成人網 嘟嘟情人色網 - 貼圖區 免費色情a片下載 台灣情色論壇 成人影片分享 免費視訊聊天區 微風 成人 論壇 kiss文學區 taiwankiss文學區

5:25 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home